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神州宣教 >> 牧师教导 >> 真犹太人,真割礼:真基督徒,真洗礼 -罗2:17-29
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林慈信:      真犹太人,真割礼:真基督徒,真洗礼 -罗2:17-29


信息重点

1.约的意义:恩典,应许 ->
2.约的回应(义务):信心,顺服
3.约的记号,印记:割礼(旧约),洗礼(新约)


经文解释

2:17-29继续发挥13节的原则:“原来在上帝面前,不是听律法的为义,乃是行律法的称义。”保罗直接讨论犹太人的特权:拥有律法、定别人的罪,自己在同样事上有罪(17-24),和割礼(25-29):有记号而没有实体。

17-20节:保罗列出犹太人的特权与好处。

21-23 节:保罗直接指出责犹太人的虚伪:特权与好处,只使上帝更严厉定罪。

17-20节 = “如果”;21-23节 = “所以”。

不过:犹太人享受这些特权的坚持 (claim to privileges) 是有理的。

保罗也承认这些特权:罗2:25;3:1;9:3-5;加2:15。

保罗列出这些好处,是要揭露犹太人的虚伪(21,22)。


17-18“ 你称为犹太人,又倚靠律法,且指着上帝夸口,既从律法中受了教训,就晓得上帝的旨意,也能分别是非(或译:也喜爱那美好的事)”。犹太人的特权:

[1] “犹太人”这名首次在王下16:6出现。犹太人常以这名字为荣:17-18,28-29节;加2:15;启2:9,3:9;亚8:23。这名字与下文“好处”有密切关系。

[2] “倚靠律法”:13节提及此扭曲。弥3:11;约5:45。

[3] “指着上帝夸口”。这本是敬拜的高潮。赛45:25;耶9:24;林前1:31。最高的特权也可能与最邪恶的罪有关。

[4] “晓得上帝的旨意”。原文:“晓得旨意”,明显地指上帝的旨意。指犹太人拥有《圣经》;有上帝启示的旨意(罗3:2;申29:29)。

[5] “能分别是非”。懂得分辨对与错;什么是符合,什么不符合上帝的旨意。

[6] “从律法中受了教训”。犹太人常常听到律法的诵读与教导:从父母亲,祭司,和利未人。利10:11;申24:8;33:10;尼8:8。



19-20“又深信自己是给瞎子领路的,是黑暗中人的光,是蠢笨人的师傅,是小孩子的先生,在律法上有知识和真理的模范。”作犹太人的好处:

[1] “给瞎子领路的。”

[2] “是黑暗中人的光。”

[3] “是愚笨人的师傅。”

[4] “是小孩子的先生。”犹太人应知道自己有这么重大责任;可是多年来失责。

[5] “在律法上有知识和真理的模范 (form)。”犹太人自夸的原因:他知道只有有知识,能教导,因为他有真理知识的规模(罗6:17,提后1:13)。

21-22 “你既是教导别人,还不教导自己吗?你讲说人不可偷窃,自己还偷窃吗?你说人不可奸淫,自己还奸淫吗?你厌恶偶像,自己还偷窃庙中之物吗?你指着律法夸口,自己倒犯律法,玷辱上帝吗?”

一系列的质问,对照特权与好处。“既是…”17-20:“如果 ”,21-23:“所以”。

[1] 一般性质问:“你既是教导别人,还不教导自己吗?”(19-20节四种好处。)

[2] 其他的质问 = 具体细节:犹太人领受了哪些诫命而没有实践、没有教导他人。偷窃,淫乱,拜偶像:这些都是律法的核心重点。保罗这样揭露犹太人的虚伪,从他的沉睡(自我满足)唤醒他。(诗50:16-18。)

犹太人最讨厌他们邻近民族的偶像敬拜!“偷窃庙中之物”:申:25-26禁止偷拿偶像敬拜之物。以弗所城的官宣布保罗和他的同伴们在这方面无罪(徒19:37)。

23节是17-22节的总结。上半归纳了17-20节;下半回答21-22节的四个问题。

上帝与祂的律法有密切关系:干犯律法 = 玷辱上帝。律法显明上帝的威严荣美。



24“ 上帝的名在外邦人中,因你们受了亵渎,正如经上所记的。”

引用赛52:5:犹太人的罪给外邦人藉口亵渎上帝的圣名。外邦人理论:一个民族必像他们的神;他们若如此行事,他们的神也犯罪。何等的讽刺:犹太人本应领导列国敬拜真神;现在他们领导外邦人亵渎! 保罗的控告达到高潮。



25 “你若是行律法的,割礼固然于你有益,若是犯律法的,你的割礼就算不得割

礼。”

保罗现在控告犹太人到无地置容。他们最后“可依靠”的,就是割礼。

但保罗承认割礼有好处:“若是行律法的”(似乎预期3:1,2)。

本节说的“行律法”不是指靠行律法称义(律法主义),乃是顺服守上帝的约。

解释:割礼的真义 = “恩典之约”的记号(sign),与印记(seal)。

“恩典之约”的核心意义 = 上帝的承诺、应许:上帝应许拯救祂子民的恩典。

因此本节的“行律法”= 以信心,顺服回应上帝恩典之约。“行律法” = “守约”。

这是上帝立约的条件。若没有信心与顺服,恩典之约的应许与特权都成为讽刺。

同样地,本节“犯律法”就是指对约(约里人应厉行的义务)不忠, =“背约”。

注意:保罗这里不是教导靠遵守律法得救(行为主义,律法主义)。

而是说:恩典之约以割礼为记号,印记;领受恩典之约的人有义务遵守律法。

这样割礼才有意义。若是背约,割礼就算不得割礼(成为没有受割礼的外邦人)。

这样,割礼就没有意义,甚至可以说,割礼是有害处的。



26“ 所以那未受割礼的,若遵守律法的条例,他虽然未受割礼,岂不算是有割礼

吗?”

“律法的条例”指上帝律法中圣洁、公义的规定。

这里的“条例”不是14节所的“律法上的事”(那是没有律法人的行为)。“律法的条例”必须从“恩典之约”的角度来看。

因此这些“遵守律法的条例”的人是回转信福音的外邦人,虽然从未受割礼,但藉基督的灵已成全了律法;他们是真正属上帝的以色列人(加6:16)。

因此,本节“遵守律法的条例”是指信心与顺服,亦即25节“行律法”的真义。

详解:当未受割礼的外邦人抓住割礼所代表的约;他珍贵约里的义务,以致也珍贵约的记号(割礼);这样,他虽然没受割礼,但等与受了割礼的人一般。

原因是:约的记号若没有所代表的实质,是没有意义的;若实质存在的话,记号不存在并不废弃上帝的(约里应许、承诺的)恩典。



27 “而且那本来未受割礼的,若能全守律法,岂不是要审判你这有仪文和割礼竟犯律法的人吗?”

保罗继续26节的提问。“本来未受割礼”:仍然留在本来的状况(未受割礼)。

“若能全守律法”,“行律法的”(25节)和“遵守律法的条例”(26节)都有同样的后果。可是每一句有各自的意义。

“审判你”不是:外邦人开庭审判犹太人,而是对照的“判断”(太12:41-42)。

“有仪文和割礼竟犯律法的人”。“仪文”(字句,letter):保罗的用法:罗7:6,林后3:6-7。仪文、字句 = 律法,律法是刻在石版上,记在《圣经》里的。

犹太虽然有律法(圣经)和割礼,还是犯律法:违背约中所规定的,就是律法里圣洁、公义的规定(25,26节)。



28-29“ 因为外面作犹太人的,不是真犹太人,外面肉身的割礼,也不是真割礼;惟有里面作的,才是真犹太人,真割礼也是心里的,在乎灵,不在乎仪文;这人的称赞,不是从人来的,乃是从上帝来的。”

真犹太人是什么,真守割礼是什么。答案:反面的,正面的。

“因为”:28-29节的“真义”支持25,26,27节所肯定的。

“外面”与“心里”的对照。

“外面作犹太人”= 血统上,作亚伯拉罕的后裔。拥有约的特权。

“外面肉身的割礼”= 物质上,能看见的。

不是犹太人,没有受割礼也可以得到成圣与新生命的事实(2:26-27)。

保罗并不是说:外表的仪式没有持续的意义。而是说:外表的记号是代表属灵的真义、实质。真正的割礼 =上帝恩典在人心里的工作;肉体上的割礼是“成圣” (sanctification) 和生命更新的记号(2:25,申30:6)。外在的是这恩典工作的记号。记号的重要性,乃在于圣洁与更新的生命的事实,而不是记号本身。

“里面作的…真犹太人”: 不在于外在仪式,别人看不见的。2:16;林前4:5;14:25;林后4:2;彼前3:4。人在心里的实况,不只是外在所承认的。

“是心里的,在乎灵,不在乎仪文”。

“是心里的”= 明显:旧约所指的心的洁净,更新。申10:16;30:6;耶4:4;9:25-26。

“在乎灵,不在乎仪文。”保罗在这里所对照的是:(一)圣灵,圣灵施行大能,赐生命;与(二)外在施行的律法,外在的字句是没有能力的。

保罗的意思是:真正的割礼是从心里作的,是圣灵施行的,不是靠律法字句的。

“灵”是指“圣灵”(在新约圣经大部份都是如此)。

虽然保罗要到第八章才完整的发挥圣灵的真理,可是在这里,论到人类普世的罪孽与定罪的时候,已经提到圣灵和圣灵的工作。



WHO IS A TRUE JEW, WHAT IS TRUE CIRCUMCISION?

WHO IS A TRUE CHRISTIAN, WHAT IS TRUE BAPTISM?

Romans 2:17-29





MESSAGE



1. Meaning of “covenant”: God’s grace, God’s promise/vow

Man’s response to (duty in) “covenant”: faith, obedience
Sign and seal of “covenant”: circumcision (OT), baptism (NT)




OVERALL THEME OF THE PASSAGE



The theme of this passage flows from verse 13: “Not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified.” Now Paul speaks to Jews directly. The Jew’s (a) privileges and (b) advantages only makes his condemnation more serious.

Verses 17-20: Paul lists the privileges and advantages enjoyed by the Jews.

And Paul lists these advantages in order to expose the hypocrisy of the Jews (21, 22).

Verses 21-23: Paul challenges their hypocrisy.

Verses 17-20 = “If” (protasis); verses 21-23 = “therefore” (apodosis).

However: The Jews’ claim to their privileges is valid: Rom. 2:25; 3:1; 9:3-5; Gal. 2:15.





COMMENTARY OF THE PASSAGE



17-18 Privileges of being a Jew listed:

[1] “Jew”: first used II Kings 16:6. This name stands for everything he is proud of: verses 17-18, 28-29; Gal. 2:15; Rev. 2:9; 3:9; Zech. 8:23. Name is linked with “advantages.”

[2] “Rest upon the law.” A distortion (see verse 13). Micah 3:11; John 5:45.

[3] “Glory in God.” This was the epitome of worship. Isaiah 45:45; Jer. 9:24; I Cor. 1:31. See how the highest privilege can be tied up with the grossest sin!

[4] “Know his will.” Original: “know the will.” Self-explanatory: the will of God (3:2). The Jews possess the Bible; the revealed will of God (Deut. 29:29).

[5] “Approve the things that are excellent.” Capacity to distinguish right from wrong, good and bad; capacity to discern and reject those things which differ from God’s will.

[6] “Being instructed out of the law.” Public instruction received by hearing the law, and by teaching – from parents, priests, and Levites (Lev. 10:11; Deut. 24:8; 33:10; Neh. 8:8).



19-20 Prerogatives (Advantages) of being a Jew.

[1] “A guide of the blind.”

[2] “A light of them that are in darkness.”

[3] “A corrector of the foolish.”

[4] “A teacher of babes.”

The Jew should know his heavy responsibility; but for centuries he failed to carry it out.

[5] “Having in the law the form of knowledge and of the truth.” This is the reason for the Jew’s confidence: he has knowledge, he can teach, because he has the very embodiment of this knowledge in well-defined and articulated form. (Rom. 6:17; II Tim. 1:13).



21-23 A series of rebukes in stark contrast with the Jew’s privileges / advantages.

“Thou therefore” – this is the beginning of the “therefore” to match the “if” vv. 17-20.

“Thou therefore that teachest another, teachest thou not thyself?” General question.

Points to the four advantages in 19-20.

Other questions: concrete specifics: illustrates which teachings = received but not practiced or taught to others. Theft, adultery, idolatry. Paul strikes at heart of the law. These sins expose his hypocrisy, awakens him from his complacency (Ps. 50:16-18).

Jews really hate the idol-worship of their neighboring peoples, etc.

“Rob temples” – The Law forbids taking the objects of idol worship (Deut. 7:25-26). The town clerk at Ephesus defends Paul and his colleagues against this charge (Acts 19:37).



23 summarizes 17-22. First half summarizes 17-20; second half answers the four questions in 21-22.

Close relation between God and His law: to transgress the law = to insult God’s majesty.



24 quotes Isaiah 52:5. Jews’ sins give excuse to the Gentiles for blaspheming God’s name.

The Gentiles reason thus: a people is like their God. If they sin, their god must sin too.

Tragic irony: Jews claim to lead nations to worship the true God; in fact, they provoke the nations to blasphemy. This is the climax of Paul’s charge (indictment).



25 – Paul now pursues the Jew into his last retreat: his only trust = circumcision.

But (anticipating Rom. 3:1, 2) Paul admits an advantage – “If thou be a doer of the law.”

“If thou be a doer of the law.” “Doing the law” here cannot mean trusting in one’s good works for justification (legalism).

Explanation: Circumcision = a sign and seal of the covenant of grace.

The heart of the covenant of grace = God’s vow and promise, God’s grace/salvation.

Thus, “doing the law” = faith and obedience, fulfilling the conditions of the covenant.

Without this faith and obedience, the covenant’s promises and privileges = a mockery. “Transgressing the law” = being unfaithful to covenant obligations, covenant-breaking.

Note: Paul is not teaching “legalism”, relying on obeying the law for salvation.

Rather: Circumcision is the sign and seal of the covenant of grace. The covenant (and its sign) has meaning only if we fulfill the obligations (to obey the law). If we break the covenant, the circumcised person is just like an uncircumcised Gentile.

The sign of the covenant becomes meaningless; circumcision becomes a liability.



26

“The ordinances of the law” = the holy, righteous requirements of the Law of God.

Thus the uncircumcised who obey the ordinances of the law = Gentiles converted to the gospel. Though never circumcised, they “fulfilled” the Law through the Spirit of Christ. Therefore they are “the true Israel,” “the Israel of God.” Gal. 6: 16.

Therefore, “obeying the ordinances of the law” = faith and obedience; exactly the same thing as the true meaning of “doing the law” in verse 25.

When the uncircumcised person holds on to the covenant (represented by circumcision), and cherishes its obligations so that he cherishes also the ordinances, then his uncircumcision is counted as circumcision. The reason is: the sign of circumcision is meaningless without the reality which it represents. If the reality which it represents is present, the absence of the sign does not cancel God’s grace.



27

Paul continuous his questioning (v. 26); the answer here is also “Yes.”

“Uncircumcision which is by nature” = those remaining in their naturally uncircumcised condition. Paul emphasized “uncircumcision” again, because Jews regard this as unclean.

“If it fulfills the law” (27), “if thou be a doer of the law” (25) and “keep the ordinances of the law” (26) all have the same effect. But each has its own shade of meaning.

“Shall judge thee”: not that Gentiles will sit in court judging the Jew, but the judgment of comparison/contrast. (Matthew 12:41-42)

“Who with the letter and circumcision art a transgressor of the law.” “Letter” = “the Law” – Paul uses “letter” in this way: Rom. 7:6, II Cor. 3:6-7.

Law of God = written on stone tablets, and in Scripture. The Jew has the Law and circumcision, yet breaks the law, violates covenant obligations – these obligations are expressed in the holy, righteous ordinances of the law (vv. 25, 26).



28-29

Who is a true Jew? What is true circumcision? Answer: negative, then positive.

“For” – verses 28-29 confirm what verses 25, 26, 27 affirm.

Contrast = what is outward, what is inward (in the heart).

Outward a Jew: natural descent, being a descendant of Abraham and all its privileges.

Outward circumcision in the flesh: that which is physical, visible.

Those who do not have the sign of circumcision can also be sanctified and renewed.

Paul is not denying that the outward sign of circumcision has lasting importance.

Paul is rather saying: the outward sign has significance only as the sign and seal of the reality it represents. True circumcision is a work of God’s grace in man’s heart. It is a sign of sanctification and renewal of life (2:25, Deut. 30:6). The outward sign/seal of circumcision represents this inward work of grace. The significance of the sign is not the sign itself, but the sanctification and renewal of life itself.

An inward Jew: hidden from outward observation. 2:16; I Cor. 4:5; 14:25; II Cor. 4:2; I Peter 3:4.

What a man is in the nooks and crannies of his heart, not what he professes outwardly.

“That of the heart, in the spirit and not in the letter.”

“That of the heart” = clear enough: the renewal and purification of the heart.

Deut. 10:16; 30:6; Jer. 4:4; 9:25, 26.

“In the spirit and not in the letter.” Contrast is between (1) the Holy Spirit, his life-giving power, and (2) the law as mere law, with no power to give life.

Circumcision which is of the heart, is by the Holy Spirit, not by relying on the law.

The word “spirit” refers to the Holy Spirit (same throughout most of the New Testament).

The work of the Holy Spirit (developed in chapter 8) is in the background even here, as Paul discusses the universality of sin and condemnation.




编辑录入:     Bo
文章来源:     林慈信
录入时间:     2/17/2006 4:43:00 PM
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