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神州宣教 >> 牧师教导 >> 非基督徒的善行 -罗马书2:14-16
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林慈信:      非基督徒的善行 -罗马书2:14-16


信息扼要


1.上下文(1:18-3:20):全人类都服在罪与审判之下。
2.外邦人有时会作一些律法所规定的事(不等于顺服律法的全部)。
3.他们虽“没有律法”,并不是没有法则;律法有功用,他们必须面对律法。
4.因为律法在他们心中的功用,人的良心会称自己为义,也定自己的罪。
5.《圣经》从来没有说,那些没有信基督的人,能靠另外一条路获得永生。

经文解释

2:14“没有律法的外邦人,若顺着本性行律法上的事,他们虽然没有律法,自己就是自己的律法。”

没有人能凭自己的义被称义。可是堕落的人类中,因有上帝的普遍启示与普遍恩典,还有一般的道德准则存留。人本能地知道:须遵守这些准则,向上帝负责。

本节处理的问题是(12节):外邦人既然没有律法,为什么认为他们是犯罪者?因为“哪里没有律法,那里就没有过犯”嘛!(罗4:15;参:罗5:13。)

答案:外邦人虽“在律法以外” (without the law),“没有律法”(have not the law),即没有上帝(话语)启示的律法,他们并不是无法则 (not without law) 的。

上帝的律法向他们显明;律法藉其他方法在他们身上起作用(“功用”)。

他们“自己就是自己的律法” (they “are the law unto themselves”);他们“显出律法的功用刻在他们心里”(they show the work of the law written in their hearts, 15)。

因此,根据如此在他们身上起功用的律法,他们是干犯了律法的人,他们犯了罪。

他们虽然“没有律法”,“在律法以外”,但他们是“在律法之下”的人。

“顺着本性”。不是因着外来的因素,而是本能的,自发的。

“行律法上的事”。保罗这里并没有说:他们成全律法,遵行律法的全部。

“律法上的事”指律法规定的,如生养孩子,孝顺,合法职业,照顾老人,病人。这些不是另一律法所规定的,是上帝启示的律法上的事。

(… not things of an entirely different law – it is essentially the same law.)

他们“自己就是自己的律法”。意思不是:无法无天,自己充当自己的准则。

乃是:因他们里面有上帝律法的印记,因此他们内心必须面对上帝的律法。

他们是自己的“律法” (the Gentiles are not simply a law to themselves, but the law.)。

他们自己向自己显明上帝的律法:他们自己就是启示律法的媒介。

他们的道德本性(包括良心),给自己人性里面有一个律法启示的“地方”。

因此,没有上帝(话语)启示的律法的人:

[1] 他们必须面对上帝的律法;因他们的本性,上帝的律法印记在他们的意识里。
[2] 他们行一些律法所规定的事。
[3] 他们行这些事,不是因为外在的催使,而是因为本性上的动力。



2:15“这是显出律法的功用刻在他们心里,他们是非之心同作见证,并且他们的思念互相较量,或以为是,或以为非。”

“这是” (参14):他们行律法的事这事实证明:律法的功用刻在他们的心里。

[1] “律法”就是上文提到的,上帝启示的律法 (the law, 不是 law);即外邦人没有的“律法”,即犹太人有的“律法”,即审判之日定罪的“律法”。

上帝指责没有律法的外邦人的“律法”,不是另一律法,而是同一律法。不过在他们身上的功用,是透过另外启示的方法。

[2] 保罗并没有说,上帝将祂的律法刻在他们的心里(耶33,结36)。这种被圣灵重生的心思意念(heart, mind, will), 不是那些不信基督的外邦人所能达到的。

[3]“律法的功用”是上文“律法上的事”(14节)。律法规定的事刻在他们心里。

[4] 律法的功用刻在他们的心里,指向上文说的“本性”。

[5] “刻在他们的心里”:有律法的人有律法刻在石版上、写在《圣经》里;没有上帝启示的律法的人,上帝还是将祂的要求刻在他们心里。



“他们是非之心同作见证。”是非之心(良心)与“律法的功用”是两吗事:

[1] 良心是“同作见证” (giving joint witness)的那位。

作见证的那位(良心)若就等于是见证的内容,那么,良心就不可能同作见证。

[2] “良心”是人性里的功能一种;是人作道德分辨、判断的功能 (function in moral discrimination and judgment)。“良心”,就是从道德意识的角度来看一个人。

人先有律法的功用刻在心里,这是在人的本性里;然后再有良心同证的功能。

[3] 这节的思想是:良心的功能作见证,见证律法的功用刻在人的心里这件事实。



“并且他们的思念互相较量,或以为是,或以为非。”

这事实,与“良心同作见证”平衡。两者都证明,律法的功用刻在人的心里。

“或以为是”:自己称自己为义。“或以为非”:自己定自己的罪。

这两种的“较量”都证明人有道德的意识,指向人的道德本性。

唯一能够解释这事实的原因就是:上帝的律法是刻在人的心里。



2:16“就在上帝藉耶稣基督审判人隐秘事的日子,照着我的福音所言。”

“上帝藉耶稣基督审判…的日子。”参2:5“上帝震怒显祂公义审判的日子”

“人隐秘事”。人心中所想的事;和不在他人面前所作的事。

“照着我的福音所言。”上帝审判没有律法的人心中隐秘的事,不是按照祂启示的律法;当然不是按福音。没有律法犯了罪的人灭亡,不是按律法来定罪(12节)。

因此:“照着我的福音所言”的意思是:福音宣告上帝要审判人类隐秘的事;上帝要藉耶稣基督审判人隐秘的事。

所有的审判都在耶稣基督的权柄之下。参:太7:21-23;太25:31-33;约5:22; 林后5:10。

基督的审判无误,深透人心思意念,没有事物可以在祂面前隐藏。来4:12-13。



朋友:你靠什么在上帝面前称义?我们每人都必须向上帝负责,不论有没有接触过《圣经》。

THE GOOD WORKS OF NON-CHRISTIANS

Romans 2:14-16



Outline of Message

Overall context (1:18-3:20): All mankind is under sin and God’s judgment.
Gentiles (non-believers) sometimes will do things required by the law. This doesn’t mean they fulfill (obey) the whole law.
Thus, though they are “without the law,” “outside the law,” they are “not without law”, they are not law-less. God’s Law functions in them; they must face it.
Because God’s Law works in him, man’s conscience may justify or condemn him.
The Bible never says that: non-believers will receive eternal life some other way.


Explanation of the Passage

2:14 “For when Gentiles, who do not have the law, by nature do what the law requires, they are a law to themselves, even though they do not have the law.”

No one can be justified by his own righteousness. However, although mankind is fallen, God gives humanity his general revelation and his common grace. Thus man knows some moral norms. Man knows he must obey these norms, and be responsible to God.

Verse 14 answers the question (12): Since Gentiles don’t have God’s law, why are they “sinners”? Because: “Where there is no law, there is no transgression (4:15, 5:13)”!

Answer: Although Gentiles are “outside the law,” they “do not have the law,” i.e., they do not have God’s verbal (word-) revelation, they are not without law. God’s law has been revealed them – through a different means. The law “works” in their hearts.

They are “the law unto themselves”: they show the work of the law written in their hearts (v. 15). Therefore, according to this law, “the Law” which is working/written in their hearts, they are sinners. They have sinned against God’s Law.

“By nature.” Not in response to outside pressure, but intuitively, spontaneously.

“Do what the law requires.” Paul doesn’t say: they obey the entire law or “fulfill” the law.

“Things of the law” / “What the law requires”, e.g. rearing children, filial piety, lawful occupations, care for the elderly and the sick, etc.

These are required by God’s law, not some other law.

“… not things of an entirely different law – it is essentially the same law.”

They are the law unto themselves – this doesn’t mean they are autonomous! Rather: they have the imprint of God’s law in their hearts; therefore, inside, they must face God’s law.

Inside man: this is where God reveals his law! We are the medium of God’s revelation.

Therefore those who do not have God’s (verbal) revelation:

[1] They must face God’s law: for God has imprinted his law inside their consciousness.

[2] They do some of the things which God’s law requires.

[3] They do these things not because of outside pressure, but spontaneously by nature.



2:15 “They show that the work of the law is written on their hearts, while their conscience also bears witness, and their conflicting thoughts accuse or even excuse them.”

The fact that they do what the law requires shows that: God’s law is written in their hearts.

[1] “The law” refers to God’s law (the law), not some vague “law.” “The law” is exactly the law which the Jews have, Gentiles don’t have, with which God will judge mankind.

[2] Paul does not say that God has written his Law on their hearts (Jer. 33, Ezek. 36). This transformation of the heart, mind and will which is “regeneration” (being born again) is not something attained by Gentile non-believers.

[3] “The work of the law” refers to things which “the law requires” (14). The things which the Law requires are written in their hearts.

[4] “Written on their hearts.” Those who have the law, have it written in stone and in Scripture; those who don’t have the law, have God’s requirements written in their hearts.

“Their conscience bears (co-) witness.” This “co-witness,” “joint witness” is different from “the work of the law,” because:

[1] “Conscience” here is giving joint witness. If conscience (the witness-giver) is the same as the content of the witness, then conscience couldn’t be giving joint witness!

[2] “Conscience” is a function in human nature: it is the function in moral discrimination and judgment. Conscience, is man viewed from the viewpoint of moral consciousness.

Man first has the work of God’s law written in him; this is part of man’s nature. Ten, man also have the function of conscience’s joint-witness.

[3] What this verse means is: The function of conscience giving joint-witness, demonstrates the fact that the work of the law is written in man’s hearts.

“And their conflicting thoughts accuse or even excuse them.”

This fact is parallel to “their conscience bears witness.” Both acts demonstrate/prove that: the work of the law is written in man’s hearts. “Excuse” – man justifies himself as righteous. “Accuse” – man condemns his own sin. This 2-fold self-judgment proves: man has a moral nature/moral consciousness.

The only way to explain this fact is: the work of God’s law is written in man’s hearts.



2:16 “On that day when, according to my gospel, God judges the secrets of men by Christ Jesus.”

“Day when… God judges.” Same as verse 5: “the wrath of the day of wrath.”

“According to my gospel.” The secrets of men who don’t have the law are not judged according to God’s Law: of course they are not judged by the gospel then! They will perish, but they perish not according to the law (12).

Therefore: “According to my gospel” means: the gospel declares that God will judge the secrets of men’s hearts. God will judge all men by Christ Jesus.

All judgment is under Christ’s authority. Matt. 7:21-23, 25:31-33; John 5:22; II Cor. 5:10. Christ’s judgment is flawless, inerrant. It penetrates men’s hearts and minds. Nothing is

hidden from him. Hebrews 4:12-13.


What are you depending on for justification before God?

We all have to be responsible before God, whether we have the Bible or not.

Next study: What does it mean to be a true “Jew”? What is the true meaning of “circumcision”? (Romans 2:17-29)




编辑录入:     Bo
文章来源:     林慈信
录入时间:     2/17/2006 4:35:00 PM
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